Innovations In Clinical Neuroscience

HOTTOP Multiple Sclerosis MAR 2018

A peer-reviewed, evidence-based journal for clinicians in the field of neuroscience

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R E V I E W 18 Hot Topics in Multiple Sclerosis [March 2018] more relevant impact on brain atrophy measures compared to late treatment, 3) second-line therapies generally have a more significant and long-lasting impact on MRI metrics of either brain or GM atrophy. Figure 1 reports the brain volume changes observed with some currently used DMDs and clearly shows that DMDs lessen the progression of brain atrophy observed in patients with MS to values similar to those observed in normal individuals. Of course, a direct comparison between drugs is hampered by substantial differences among the experimental design of the trials (including patient selection, clinical, and MRI parameters). AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS All authors have contributed to manuscript preparation. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. COPYRIGHT Copyright © The Author(s). 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/ publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. REFERENCES 1. Kalkers NF, Ameziane N, Bot JC, et al. Longitudinal brain volume measurement in multiple sclerosis: rate of brain atrophy is independent of the disease subtype. Arch Neurol. 2001;59:1572–6. 2. Giorgio A, Battaglini M, Smith SM, De Stefano N. Brain atrophy assessment in multiple sclerosis: importance and limitations. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2008;18:675–86. 3. Vågberg M, Lindqvist T, Ambarki K. 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