Innovations In Clinical Neuroscience

NOV-DEC 2017

A peer-reviewed, evidence-based journal for clinicians in the field of neuroscience

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76 ICNS INNOVATIONS IN CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE November-December 2017 • Volume 14 • Number 11–12 R E V I E W considered. Research has suggested that the PANSS factor structure and item relationships differ by illness phase. 20 Hence, there might be a need for the development in future research of a specific PANSS capable of measuring treatment effects in first-episode patients and established, multi-episode patients, and for use in treatment-resistant patients. REFERENCES 1. Kay SR, Fiszbein A, Opler LA. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 1987;13(2): 261–276. 2. Nicotra E, Casu G, Piras S, Marchese G. On the use of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in randomized clinical trials. Schizophr Res. 2015;165(2-3):181–118. 3. Aggarwal N, Tao H, Xu K, et al. Comparing the PANSS in Chinese and American inpatients: cross-cultural psychiatric analyses of instrument translation and implementation. Schizophr Res. 2011;132(2-3):146–152. 4. Overall JE, Gorham DR. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Psychol Rep. 1962;10(3):799–812. 5. Singh MM, Kay SR. A comparative study of haloperidol and chlorpromazine in terms of clinical effects and therapeutic reversal with benztropine in schizophrenia: theoretical implications for potency differences among neuroleptics. Psychopharmacologia. 1975;43(2):103–113. 6. Kay SR, Opler RA, Fiszbein A. The Structured Clinical Interview for Positive and Negative Syndromes of Schizophrenia. New York, NYL Multi-Health Systems; 1992. 7. Raykov T. Alpha if item deleted: a note on loss of criterion validity in scale development if maximizing coefficient alpha. Br J Math Stat Psychol. 2008;61(Pt 2):275–285. 8. DeVellis RF. Scale Development: Theory and Applications, Second Edition. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications; 2003. 9. Lindenmayer JP, Bernstein-Hyman R, Grochowski S. Five-factor model of schizophrenia: initial validation. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1994;182(11): 631–638. 10. Marder SR, Davis JM, Chouinard G. The effects of risperidone on the five dimensions of schizophrenia derived by factor analysis: combined results of the North American trials. J Clin Psychiatry. 1997;58(12):538–546. 11. White L, Harvey PD, Opler L, Lindenmayer JP. Empirical assessment of the factorial structure of clinical symptoms in schizophrenia: a multisite, multimodel evaluation of the factorial structure of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The PANSS Study Group. Psychopathology. 1997;30(5):263–274. 12. Van der Gaag M, Cuijpers A, Hoffman T, et al. The five-factor model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale I: confirmatory factor analysis fails to confirm 25 published five-factor solutions. Schizophr Res. 2006; 85:273–279. 13. Wallwork R, Fortgang R, Hashimoto R, et al. Searching for a consensus five-factor model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2012;137(1- 3):246–250. 14. Hayashi N, Igarashi Y, Yamashina M, Suda K. Is there a gender difference in a factorial structure of the positive and negative syndrome scale? a test by structural equation modeling. Psychopathology. 2002;35(1):28–35. 15. Santor DA, Ascher-Svanum H, Lindenmayer JP, Obenchain RL. Item response analysis of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. BMC Psychiatry. 2007;7:66. 16. Khan A, Lewis C, Lindenmayer JP. Use of non- parametric item response theory to develop a shortened version of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11:178. 17. Bech P. Clinical Psychometrics. Oxford, England: Wiley Blackwell; 2012. 18. Østergaard SD, Lemming OM, Mors O, et al. PANSS-6: a brief rating scale for the measurement of severity in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2016;133(6):436–444. 19. Yamamoto N, Inada T, Shimodera S, et al. Brief PANSS to assess and monitor the overall severity of schizophrenia. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2010;64(3):262–267. 20. Østergaard S, Foldager L, Mors O, et al. The validity and sensitivity of PANSS-6 in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study. Schizophr Bull. 2017 Jun 1. [Epub ahead of print]. 21. Khan A, Lindenmayer JP, Opler M, et al. The evolution of illness phases in schizophrenia: a non-parametric item response analysis of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Schizophr Res Cogn. 2014;1(2):53–89. ICNS

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