Innovations In Clinical Neuroscience

HOTTOP Multiple Sclerosis DEC 2017

A peer-reviewed, evidence-based journal for clinicians in the field of neuroscience

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R E V I E W 21 Hot Topics in Multiple Sclerosis [December 2017] Stigliano E. Epstein-Barr virus in the central nervous system and cervical lymph node of a patient with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2014;73(7):729–31. 23. Pender MP, Burrows SR. Epstein-Barr virus and multiple sclerosis: potential opportunities for immunotherapy. Clin Transl Immunol. 2014;3(10):e27. 24. Cardenas Sierra D, Velez Colmenares G, Orfao de Matos A, et al. Age- associated Epstein-Barr virus-specific T cell responses in seropositive healthy adults. Clin Exp Immunol. 2014;177(1):320–32. 25. Tutuncu M, Tang J, Zeid NA, et al. Onset of progressive phase is an age-dependent clinical milestone in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2013;19(2):188–98. 26. Frischer JM, Bramow S, Dal-Bianco A, et al. The relation between inflammation and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis brains. Brain. 2009;132(Pt 5):1175–89. 27. Kalincik T, Buzzard K, Jokubaitis V, et al. Risk of relapse phenotype recurrence in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2014;20(11):1511–22. 28. Feng T, Wang L, Schoeb TR, et al. Microbiota innate stimulation is a prerequisite for T cell spontaneous proliferation and induction of experimental colitis. J Exp Med. 2010;207(6):1321–32. 29. Berer K, Mues M, Koutrolos M, et al. Commensal microbiota and myelin autoantigen cooperate to trigger autoimmune demyelination. Nature. 2011;479(7374):538–41. 30. Lassmann H. Mechanisms of white matter damage in multiple sclerosis. Glia. 2014;62(11):1816–30. 31. Naegele M, Martin R. The good and the bad of neuroinflammation in multiple sclerosis. Handb Clin Neurol. 2014;122:59–87. 32. Kutzelnigg A, Lassmann H. Pathology of multiple sclerosis and related inflammatory demyelinating diseases. Handb Clin Neurol. 2014;122:15–58. 33. Komori M, Blake A, Greenwood M, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid markers reveal intrathecal inflammation in progressive multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2015;78(1):3–20. 34. Romme Christensen J, Bornsen L, Ratzer R, et al. Systemic inflammation in progressive multiple sclerosis involves follicular T-helper, Th17- and activated B-cells and correlates with progression. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e57820. 35. Roche. U.S. FDA grants breakthrough therapy designation for Roche's investigational medicine ocrelizumab in primary progressive multiple sclerosis. 2016. Available from: http:// www.roche.com/investors/updates/ inv-update-2016-02-17.htm 36. Magliozzi R, Howell O, Vora A, et al. Meningeal B-cell follicles in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis associate with early onset of disease and severe cortical pathology. Brain. 2007;130(Pt 4):1089–104. 37. Hoffmann F, Meinl E. B cells in multiple sclerosis: good or bad guys? An article for 28 May 2014 – world MS Day 2014. Eur J Immunol. 2014;44(5):1247–50. 38. Li R, Rezk A, Miyazaki Y, et al. Proinflammatory GM-CSF-producing B cells in multiple sclerosis and B cell depletion therapy. Sci Transl Med. 2015;7(310):310ra166. 39. Wright BR, Warrington AE, Edberg DD, Rodriguez M. Cellular mechanisms of central nervous system repair by natural autoreactive monoclonal antibodies. Arch Neurol. 2009;66(12):1456–9. 40. Geissmann F, Gordon S, Hume DA, et al. Unravelling mononuclear phagocyte heterogeneity. Nat Rev Immunol. 2010;10(6):453–60. 41. Valentin-Torres A, Savarin C, Hinton DR, et al. Sustained TNF production by central nervous system infiltrating macrophages promotes progressive autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neuroinflammation. 2016;13:46. 42. Brettschneider J, Ecker D, Bitsch A, et al. The macrophage activity marker sCD14 is increased in patients with multiple sclerosis and upregulated by interferon beta-1b. J Neuroimmunol. 2002;133(1–2):193–7. 43. Karni A, Koldzic DN, Bharanidharan P, et al. IL-18 is linked to raised IFN- gamma in multiple sclerosis and is induced by activated CD4(+) T cells via CD40-CD40 ligand interactions. J Neuroimmunol. 2002;125(1–2):134– 40. 44. Karni A, Abraham M, Monsonego A, et al. Innate immunity in multiple sclerosis: myeloid dendritic cells in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis are activated and drive a proinflammatory immune response. J Immunol. 2006;177(6):4196–202. 45. Mahad DH, Trapp BD, Lassmann H. Pathological mechanisms in progressive multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol. 2015;14(2):183–93. 46. Howell OW, Reeves CA, Nicholas R, et al. Meningeal inflammation is widespread and linked to cortical pathology in multiple sclerosis. Brain. 2011;134(Pt 9):2755–71. 47. Trapp BD, Peterson J, Ransohoff RM, et al. Axonal transection in the lesions of multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(5):278–85. 48. Filippi M, Rocca MA. Dirty-appearing white matter: a disregarded entity in multiple sclerosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010;31(3):390–1. 49. Moll NM, Rietsch AM, Thomas S, et al. Multiple sclerosis normal- appearing white matter: pathology- imaging correlations. Ann Neurol. 2011;70(5):764–73. 50. Abdelhak A, Junker A, Brettschneider J, et al. Brain-specific cytoskeletal damage markers in cerebrospinal fluid: is there a common pattern between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and primary progressive multiple sclerosis? Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16(8):17565–88. 51. Calabrese M, Magliozzi R, Ciccarelli O, et al. Exploring the origins of grey matter damage in multiple sclerosis. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2015;16(3):147–58. 52. van Munster CE, Jonkman LE, Weinstein HC, et al. Gray matter damage in multiple sclerosis: impact on clinical symptoms. Neuroscience. 2015;303:446–61. 53. Lassmann H. Multiple sclerosis: lessons from molecular neuropathology. Exp

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