Innovations In Clinical Neuroscience

HOTTOP Multiple Sclerosis DEC 2017

A peer-reviewed, evidence-based journal for clinicians in the field of neuroscience

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R E V I E W 20 Hot Topics in Multiple Sclerosis [December 2017] inflammation. The results of ocrelizumab and biotin announce the beginning of a new era with more therapies eventually coming to the market in the next few years. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS AA formulated the main concept, reviewed the published data, postulated the mentioned hypothesis, and drafted the manuscript. HT supervised and reviewed the article. MW reviewed the article. COPYRIGHT Copyright © 2017 Abdelhak, Weber and Tumani. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. REFERENCES 1. Compston A. The 150th anniversary of the first depiction of the lesions of multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1988;51(10):1249–52. 2. National-Multiple-Sclerosis- Society. The MS risease-modifying medications. 2016. 3. Tourbah A, Lebrun-Frenay C, Edan G, et al. MD1003 (high-dose biotin) for the treatment of progressive multiple sclerosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Mult Scler. 2016;22(13):1719–31. 4. Montalban X, Hauser SL, Kappos L, et al. Ocrelizumab versus placebo in primary progressive multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2016;376(3):209–20. 5. Bartolomei MS, Tilghman SM. Genomic imprinting in mammals. Annu Rev Genet. 1997;31:493–525. 6. Robertson NP, Fraser M, Deans J, et al. Age-adjusted recurrence risks for relatives of patients with multiple sclerosis. Brain. 1996;119(Pt 2):449– 55. 7. Barcellos LF, Sawcer S, Ramsay PP, et al. Heterogeneity at the HLA-DRB1 locus and risk for multiple sclerosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15(18):2813–24. 8. Okuda DT, Srinivasan R, Oksenberg JR, et al. Genotype-phenotype correlations in multiple sclerosis: HLA genes influence disease severity inferred by 1HMR spectroscopy and MRI measures. Brain. 2009;132(Pt 1):250–9. 9. International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium (IMSGC), Beecham AH, Patsopoulos NA, Xifara DK, et al. Analysis of immune-related loci identifies 48 new susceptibility variants for multiple sclerosis. Nat Genet. 2013;45(11):1353–60. 10. Mc Guire C, Prinz M, Beyaert R, van Loo G. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) in multiple sclerosis pathology. Trends Mol Med. 2013;19(10):604–13. 11. Hilven K, Patsopoulos NA, Dubois B, Goris A. Burden of risk variants correlates with phenotype of multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2015;21(13):1670–80. 12. Akkad DA, Bellenberg B, Esser S, et al. Multiple sclerosis risk loci correlate with cervical cord atrophy and may explain the course of disability. Neurogenetics. 2015;16(3):161–8. 13. Correale J, Gaitan MI. Multiple sclerosis and environmental factors: the role of vitamin D, parasites, and Epstein-Barr virus infection. Acta Neurol Scand. 2015;132(199):46–55. 14. Kimball SM, Ursell MR, O'Connor P, Vieth R. Safety of vitamin D3 in adults with multiple sclerosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(3):645–51. 15. Correale J, Ysrraelit MC, Gaitan MI. Immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D in multiple sclerosis. Brain. 2009;132(Pt 5):1146–60. 16. Muris AH, Smolders J, Rolf L, et al. Vitamin D status does not affect disability progression of patients with multiple sclerosis over three year follow-up. PLoS One. 2016;11(6):e0156122. 17. Ramagopalan SV, Maugeri NJ, Handunnetthi L, et al. Expression of the multiple sclerosis-associated MHC class II Allele HLA-DRB1*1501 is regulated by vitamin D. PLoS Genet. 2009;5(2):e1000369. 18. Levin LI, Munger KL, O'Reilly EJ, et al. Primary infection with the Epstein- Barr virus and risk of multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2010;67(6):824–30. 19. Haahr S, Hollsberg P. Multiple sclerosis is linked to Epstein-Barr virus infection. Rev Med Virol. 2006;16(5):297–310. 20. Kvistad S, Myhr KM, Holmoy T, et al. Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus and MRI disease activity in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2014;20(14):1833–40. 21. Thorley-Lawson DA, Gross A. Persistence of the Epstein-Barr virus and the origins of associated lymphomas. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(13):1328–37. 22. Serafini B, Rosicarelli B, Aloisi F, FIGURE 2. Overview of the possible treatment strategies in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). A summary of the current and possible treatment strategies in PPMS.

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