Innovations In Clinical Neuroscience

Hot Topics in Mulitple Sclerosis NOV 2017

A peer-reviewed, evidence-based journal for clinicians in the field of neuroscience

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23 Hot Topics in Multiple Sclerosis [November 2017] JOURNAL WATCH sclerosis risk and progression: towards characterization of the "MS microbiome." Neurotherapeutics 2017. doi:10.1007/ s13311-017-0587-y. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PMID: 29147991. 9. Simpson S Jr, Blizzard L, Otahal P, et al. Latitude is significantly associated with the prevalence of multiple sclerosis: a meta- analysis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2011;82:1132–1141. doi:10.1136/ jnnp.2011.240432. Epub 2011 Apr 8. PMID: 21478203. 10. Hammas K, Yaouanq J, Lannes M, et al. Small-area distribution of multiple sclerosis incidence in western France: in search of environmental triggers. Int J Health Geogr 2017;16:35. doi:10.1186/ s12942-017-0108-6. PMID: 28934989; PMCID: PMC5609066. 11. Compston A, Coles A. Multiple sclerosis. Lancet 2008;25:1502–1517. doi: 10.1016/ S0140-6736(08)61620-7. PMID: 18970977. 12. Marrie RA. Environmental risk factors in multiple sclerosis aetiology. Lancet Neurol 2004;3:709-718. 13. Handel AE, Williamson AJ, Disanto G, et al. Smoking and multiple sclerosis: an updated meta-analysis. PLoS One 2011;6:e16149. 14. Almohmeed YH, Avenell A, Aucott L, Vickers MA. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the sero-epidemiological association between Epstein Barr virus and multiple sclerosis. PloS One 2013;8:e61110. 15. Benito-León J, Laurence M. The role of fungi in the etiology of multiple sclerosis. Front Neurol 2017;16:535. doi: 10.3389/ fneur.2017.00535. eCollection 2017. PMID: 29085329; PMCID: PMC5650687. 16. Carmona R, Linares C, Recio A, Ortiz C, Díaz J. Emergency multiple sclerosis hospital admissions attributable to chemical and acoustic pollution: Madrid (Spain), 2001–2009. Sci Total Environ 2018;15:111-118. doi:10.1016/j. scitotenv.2017.08.243. Epub 2017 Sep 1. PMID: 28846902. Pattern recognition of the multiple sclerosis syndrome. Zabad RK, Stewart R, Healey KM. Brain Sci 2017 Oct 24;7(10). pii: E138. doi: 10.3390/brainsci7100138. Review. Summary. Authors review patterns of clinical, paraclinical, and imaging presentations for multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) to improve clinical differentiation between these two autoimmune diseases. * PMID 29064441; PMCID: PMC5664065 Healthcare use before a first demyelinating event suggestive of a multiple sclerosis prodrome: a matched cohort study. Wijnands JMA, Kingwell E, Zhu F, et al. Lancet Neurol 2017 Jun;16(6):445-451. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(17)30076-5. Epub 2017 Apr 20. Summary. To determine whether an early symptom or set of symptoms occurs before the first demyelinating event that signals the onset of multiple sclerosis (MS), researchers conducted a matched cohort study using data from the five years before the first demyelinating disease claim or clinical report (14,428 multiple sclerosis cases and 72,059 matched controls). They found that annual healthcare use increased steadily in the five years before the first demyelinating disease claim in people with multiple sclerosis compared to controls, and conclude that a measurable multiple sclerosis prodrome exists that can facilitate earlier diagnosis of MS. * PMID 28434855 Gut microbiome in multiple sclerosis: the players involved and the roles they play Shahi SK, Freedman SN, Mangalam AK. Gut Microbes 2017 Jul 11:1-9. doi:10. 1080/19490976.2017.1349041. [Epub ahead of print] Summary. Authors discuss recent studies of the microbiome associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) and possible mechanisms through which the gut microbiome might contribute to the pathogenesis of MS. * PMID 28696139 Concussion in adolescence and risk of multiple sclerosis. Montgomery S, Hiyoshi A, Burkill S, et al. Ann Neurol 2017 Oct;82(4):554–561. doi: 10.1002/ana.25036. Epub 2017 Sep 25. Summary. Researchers used data from national patient registers to determine whether there is an association between concussion in childhood or adolescence and subsequent multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. They found that concussion during adolescence was associated with increased risk of MS (odds ratio 1.22-2.33), and conclude that this association might be due to initiation of an autoimmune process in the central nervous system. * PMID 28869671 Common clinical and imaging conditions misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis: a current approach to the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Siva A. Neurol Clin 2018 Feb;36(1):69– 117. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2017.08.014. Review. Summary. Here, the author discusses what causes the misdiagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS), which is primarily misinterpretation of nonspecific clinical and imaging findings and misapplication of MS diagnostic criteria. * PMID 29157405 See also: Giorgio A, De Stefano N. Effective utilization of MRI in the diagnosis and management of multiple sclerosis. Neurol Clin 2018 Feb;36(1):27–34. doi:10.1016/j. ncl.2017.08.013. Review. PMID: 29157402. New advances in disease-modifying therapies for relapsing and progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. Vidal-Jordana A. Neurol Clin 2018 Feb;36(1):173–183. doi: 10.1016/j. ncl.2017.08.011. Review. Summary. Here, the author discusses new drugs that will promote neuroprotection and/or myelin repair through different mechanisms of action, potentially targeting the most degenerative disease components. * PMID 29157398

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