Innovations In Clinical Neuroscience

NOV-DEC 2017

A peer-reviewed, evidence-based journal for clinicians in the field of neuroscience

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46 ICNS INNOVATIONS IN CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE November-December 2017 • Volume 14 • Number 11–12 O R I G I N A L R E S E A R C H RESULTS Standardized factor loading results for the exploratory and confirmatory bifactor models are shown in Table 2. Items belonging to the eight-item Remission set are bolded and italicized. In the exploratory Schmid-Leiman analysis, all items loaded significantly on the general factor and loaded highest on the hypothesized specific factor. However, 10 items have sizable (>0.20) cross-loadings on multiple group factors. This violates the assumed independent cluster structure of the confirmatory bifactor model (i.e., each item loads on one and only one specific factor) and thus will be a source of misfit and possible parameter bias in the confirmatory bifactor model and subsequent bifactor IRT model. The confirmatory bifactor model in the right panel had a chi-square (c 2 ) of 12,833 (df=375), CFI =0 .97, RMSEA =0.095, and SRMR=0.072. Although the parameter estimates are reasonable and CFI is well above the traditional benchmark of 0.90 (or 0.95), these values indicate only a marginal fit at best. Part of the lack of fit can be attributed to cross-loadings that are forced to be zero in the confirmatory model. Other sources of TABLE 2. Standardized factor loadings from Schmid-Leiman exploratory bifactor analysis and confirmatory bifactor analysis SYMPTOM SCHMID-LEIMAN EXPLORATORY CONFIRMATORY SOLUTION ECVI G F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 G F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 Blunted Affect 0.34 0.66 -- -- -- -- 0.45 0.64 -- -- -- -- 0.33 Emotional Withdrawal 0.49 0.73 -- -- -- -- 0.58 0.68 -- -- -- -- 0.42 Poor Rapport 0.50 0.59 -- -- -- 0.23 0.61 0.50 -- -- -- -- 0.60 Passive Apathetic Social Withdrawal 0.47 0.70 -- -- -- -- 0.57 0.64 -- -- -- -- 0.44 Lack of Spontaneity Conversation 0.37 0.61 -- -- -- -- 0.47 0.57 -- -- -- -- 0.40 Motor Retardation 0.30 0.49 -- 0.22 -- -- 0.38 0.44 -- -- -- -- 0.43 Active Social Avoidance 0.53 0.48 -- -- -- -- 0.62 0.37 -- -- -- -- 0.74 Delusions 0.72 -- -- -- 0.59 -- 0.71 -- -- -- 0.30 -- 0.85* Hallucinatory Behavior 0.61 -- -- -- 0.42 -- 0.61 -- -- -- 0.35 -- 0.75 Grandiosity 0.50 -- -- -- 0.32 0.21 0.48 -- -- -- 0.38 -- 0.61 Suspiciousness/Persecution 0.68 -- -- -- 0.40 -- 0.70 -- -- -- 0.38 -- 0.77* Stereotyped Thinking 0.56 -- 0.44 -- -- -- 0.68 -- 0.32 -- -- -- 0.82* Somatic Concern 0.37 -- -- 0.43 -- -- 0.38 -- -- 0.40 -- -- 0.47 Unusual Thought Content 0.66 -- -- -- 0.51 -- 0.67 -- -- -- 0.33 -- 0.80* Lack of Judgment and Insight 0.54 -- 0.34 -- -- -- 0.63 -- 0.1 -- -- -- 0.98* Conceptual Disorganization 0.62 -- 0.48 -- 0.21 -- 0.73 -- 0.23 -- -- -- 0.91 Difficulty in Abstract Thinking 0.46 0.21 0.33 -- -- -- 0.55 -- 0.42 -- -- -- 0.63 Mannerisms and Posturing 0.40 -- 0.40 -- -- -- 0.50 -- 0.67 -- -- -- 0.36 Poor Attention 0.54 -- 0.51 -- -- -- 0.65 -- 0.55 -- -- -- 0.58 Disturbance of Volition 0.45 0.27 0.42 -- -- -- 0.59 -- 0.46 -- -- -- 0.62 Preoccupation 0.60 -- 0.33 -- 0.22 -- 0.74 -- 0.57 -- -- -- 0.63 Disorientation 0.45 -- 0.20 -- -- -- 0.52 -- 0.66 -- -- -- 0.38 Excitement 0.66 -- 0.21 0.20 -- 0.38 0.70 -- -- -- -- 0.44 0.72 Hostility 0.66 -- -- -- -- 0.59 0.66 -- -- -- -- 0.35 0.78* Uncooperative 0.63 0.20 -- -- -- 0.50 0.70 -- -- -- -- 0.40 0.75 Poor Impulse Control 0.61 -- -- -- -- 0.46 0.62 -- -- -- -- 0.46 0.64 Anxiety 0.55 -- -- 0.64 -- -- 0.58 -- -- 0.40 -- -- 0.68 Guilt Feelings 0.37 -- -- 0.51 -- -- 0.35 -- -- 0.56 -- -- 0.28 Tension 0.61 -- 0.21 0.52 -- -- 0.69 -- -- 0.35 -- -- 0.80* Depression 0.41 -- -- 0.61 -- -- 0.42 -- -- 0.55 -- -- 0.37 Note: Items in the Remission set are bolded and italicized. In the exploratory model, all loadings <0.20 are suppressed. G=global symptom severity, F1 = negative, F2=disorganized, F3=anxiety/depression, F4=positive, and F5=excited; * indicates the top 8 items in terms of ECVI ECVI: explained common variance per item

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