Innovations In Clinical Neuroscience

MAR-APR 2017

A peer-reviewed, evidence-based journal for clinicians in the field of neuroscience

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Innovations in CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE [ V O L U M E 1 4 , N U M B E R 3 – 4 , M A R C H – A P R I L 2 0 1 7 ] 16 among siblings when compared to the general population. 16 There is no standard approach to treating ASD. In addition to educational and physical therapy interventions, the disorder is often treated with antipsychotic drugs, 17 psychostimulants, and antidepressants. The isolation of hESCs has shown promise in treating various incurable disorders. 18,19 Many recent studies support the use of hESC in treating ASD. 8,15 Studies have also highlighted the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in ASD treatment, which can be isolated or generated from hESC. 20 A single registered human clinical trial using MSCs to treat ASD (NCT01343511; http://www.clinicaltrials. gov) aims to test the safety and efficacy of human umbilical cord MSCs and human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplantation in Chinese patients with ASD. 21 The mechanism of action of stem cells in the treatment of ASD might involve the correction of hypoperfusion and immunomodulation. 22 MSCs administered to patients with ASD migrate to the affected region and release survival- promoting growth factors and anti- inflammatory cytokines, which restores plasticity. This mechanism of action might explain the improvements we saw in our study patients after sESC treatment. 20 No adverse effects were seen in our patients during the study. CONCLUSION Our patients showed improvement in health, social skills, immunity, and cognition following treatment with hESC therapy. Improvement in brain blood perfusion was reflected in the SPECT scan after hESC therapy. This is the first study reporting the potential role hESCs may have in the treatment of ASD. Studies with larger samples of patients may provide better evidence for the use of hESC more effectively. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author acknowledges all the doctors, staff, and patients of the Nutech Mediworld. The author also acknowledges Knowledge Isotopes Pvt. Ltd. (www.knowledgeisotopes.com) for the editorial support. REFERENCES 1. Currenti SA. Understanding and determining the etiology of autism. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;30(2):161–171. 2. Ratajczak HV. Theoretical aspects of autism: causes--a review. J Immunotoxicol. 2011;8(1):68–79. 3. American Psychiatric Association. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press Inc.; 2013. 4. American Psychiatric Association. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press Inc.; 2000. 5. Volkmar FR, Reichow B. Autism in DSM-5: progress and challenges. Mol Autism. 2013;4(1):13. 6. Kong X, Wang X, Stone W. Prospect of stem cell therapy for autism spectrum disorders. The North American Journal of Medicine and Science. 2011;4(3):134–138. 7. Yabut O, Bernstein HS. The promise of human embryonic stem cells in aging- associated diseases. Aging (Albany NY). 2011;3(5):494–508. 8. Aigner S, Heckel T, Zhang JD, et al. Human pluripotent stem cell models of autism spectrum disorder: emerging frontiers, opportunities, and challenges towards neuronal networks in a dish. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2014;231(6):1089–1104. 9. Shroff G, Gupta A, Barthakur JK. Therapeutic potential of human embryonic stem cell transplantation in patients with cerebral palsy. J Transl Med. 2014;12(1):318. 10. World Medical Association. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. J Postgrad Med. 2002;48(3):206–208. 11. Shroff G, Barthakur JK, Mohan P, Mahajan H. Single photon emission computed tomography scan as a diagnostic tool in children with cerebral palsy treated with human embryonic stem cells. J Nucl Med Radiat Ther. 2015;6(3):1–6. 12. Abdel-Dayem HM, Abu-Judeh H, Kumar M, et al. SPECT brain perfusion abnormalities in mild or moderate traumatic brain injury. Clin Nucl Med. 1998;23(5):309–317. 13. Abu-Judeh HH, Parker R, Singh M, et al. SPET brain perfusion imaging in mild traumatic brain injury without loss of consciousness and normal computed tomography. Nucl Med Commun. 1999;20(6):505–510. 14. Goines P, Van de Water J. The immune system's role in the biology of autism. Curr Opin Neurol. 2010;23(2):111–117. 15. Ng TK, Fortino VR, Pelaez D, Cheung HS. Progress of mesenchymal stem cell therapy for neural and retinal diseases. World J Stem Cells. 2014;6(2):111–119. 16. Muhle R, Trentacoste SV, Rapin I. The genetics of autism. Pediatrics. 2004;113(5):e472–486. 17. Posey DJ, Stigler KA, Erickson CA, McDougle CJ. Antipsychotics in the treatment of autism. J Clin Invest. 2008;118(1):6–14. 18. Barberi T, Willis LM, Socci ND, Studer L. Derivation of multipotent mesenchymal precursors from human embryonic stem cells. PLoS Med. 2005;2(6):e161. 19. Siniscalco D, Bradstreet JJ, Sych N, Antonucci N. Perspectives on the use of stem cells for autism treatment. Stem Cells Int. 2013;2013:262438. 20. Siniscalco D, Bradstreet JJ, Sych N, Antonucci N. Mesenchymal stem cells in treating autism: Novel insights. World J Stem Cells. 2014;6(2):173–178. 21. Lv YT, Zhang Y, Liu M, et al. Transplantation of human cord blood mononuclear cells and umbilical cord- derived mesenchymal stem cells in autism. J Transl Med. 2013;11:196. 22. Ichim TE, Solano F, Glenn E, et al. Stem cell therapy for autism. J Transl Med. 2007;5:30.

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