Innovations In Clinical Neuroscience

MAR-APR 2017

A peer-reviewed, evidence-based journal for clinicians in the field of neuroscience

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Innovations in CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE [ V O L U M E 1 4 , N U M B E R 3 – 4 , M A R C H – A P R I L 2 0 1 7 ] 15 On examination, the patient had decreased tricep reflex with impaired inarticulated and incoherent speech. He exhibited the signs of impaired sensory perception and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). He was hypersensitive to noises and smells, had weak eye sight, and had night terrors. His brain SPECT scan was performed on 21 June 2011, which revealed moderate to severely reduced perfusion in the B/L temporal regions and severe hypoperfusion in the B/L cerebellar regions. At our facility, the patient underwent hESC therapy as a primary treatment. After receiving four sessions of treatment, there was improvement in his cognition and communication skills. He developed better hand-eye coordination, had improved speech, and could do multiple tasks simultaneously. His hypersensitivity to olfactory/auditory stimulus reduced, he became physically strong, and his immune system improved. After treatment, his SPECT scan, performed 1 July, 2013, revealed normal cerebral perfusion flow. The degree of perfusion observed in the cerebral and cerebellar regions significantly decreased (Figure 2). Case 3. A four-year-old boy with impaired fine motor and communication skills was admitted to Nutech Mediworld on 27 March, 2012. He exhibited delays in reaching developmental milestones, including speech, flapped his hands, and behaved aggressively. Prenatally, his mother suffered from gestational diabetes, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and alpha thalassemia. The patient was carried to full term and had a normal delivery, but he did not cry spontaneously after birth. He was diagnosed with mild ASD and global developmental delay. His brain SPECT imaging was performed on 22 March, 2012, which revealed mild-to-moderate hypoperfusion in B/L frontal and temporal and B/L cerebellar regions, respectively. The patient underwent four sessions of hESC therapy from 27 March, 2012 to 27 September 2014, after which there were improvements in his social interactions, eye contact, intelligence, and motor skills. He could make short sentences and follow commands. As compared to the previous scans, the SPECT scan on 9 January, 2014 revealed normal cerebral perfusion flow (Figure 3). DISCUSSION SPECT scans of our three patients showed significant improvement in brain blood perfusion following hESC therapy. We determined this improvement through the use of nuclear imaging—a test used to examine the functioning of organs and the extent of blood perfusion in the brain. SPECT scans are an essential tool for determining cerebral blood flow, cerebral impairment, and local brain metabolism. 11 Moreover, SPECT scans are highly sensitive to detecting abnormalities in the brain. 12,13 These three pediatric patients with ASD demonstrated significant improvements in communication, writing, and cognitive skills following hESC therapy. Our patients showed improvements in balance and speech, stopped flapping their hands, and were calmer and more physically strong. We also observed a reduction in the inflammation of the eyes of one patient who suffered from eye-related problems. ASD is a brain-related disorder characterized by an impaired immune system. The most commonly diagnosed pathologies of ASD are impaired CNS circulation, hypoperfusion to the brain, and a weak immune system accompanied by neuroinflammation in the brain. 14,15 It has also been suggested that ASD without a diagnosable cause is a heritable disorder due to its high rate of recurrence FIGURE 3, CASE 3. Single-photon emission computed tomography scan before and after human embryonic stem cell therapy therapy—grey: normal; red, pink, white: above normal; green, light blue, dark blue, black: hypoperfused regions

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