Innovations In Clinical Neuroscience

JAN-FEB 2017

A peer-reviewed, evidence-based journal for clinicians in the field of neuroscience

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Innovations in CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE [ V O L U M E 1 4 , N U M B E R 1 – 2 , J A N U A R Y – F E B R U A R Y 2 0 1 7 ] 46 followed by the post-hoc Tukey test and a probability of less than 0.05 was considered to indicate significant difference between the groups' means. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS ver. 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). RESULTS EPM test-acute test. MDMA affected acute EPM behavior in a dose-dependent manner: In AL groups, both of 20 and 60mg/kg, open arm time percentage was significantly decreased (p< 0.001) compared to vehicle and IF groups. However, open arm time percentage in IF groups was significantly increased (p< 0.001) compared to the IF control and AL control groups (Figure 2). EPM test 12 days after treatment At both doses, AL-IF subgroups compared to AL-AL subgroups (with 20mg/kg, p<0.01 and with 60mg/kg, p<0.001) and IF-IF subgroups compared to IF-AL subgroups (p<0.001) spent significantly more time in open arm (Figure 3). OFT—acute test. Total traveled distance and rearing behavior in the IF control group was increased significantly (p<0.001) compared to the AL control group. The MDMA affected locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner: In AL groups at both 20 and 60mg/kg, the total traveled distances were significantly increased (p<0.001) compared to the vehicle. Also, total traveled distances in IF groups were significantly increased (p< 0.001) compared to the IF control and AL control groups (Figure 4). At both the doses, the rearing behavior was significantly decreased (p<0.001) in AL test groups compared to the AL control group. Also the IF test groups showed significant decrease (p<0.001) in rearing behavior compared to the IF control group; however, rearing behavior increased significantly (p<0.001) when compared to the AL groups (Figure 5). OFT—Nine days after treatment. At b oth the doses, AL-IF subgroups compared to AL-AL subgroups (with 20mg/kg, p<0.001) and IF-IF subgroups compared to IF-AL subgroups (with 20mg/kg, p<0.001 and with 60mg/kg, p <0.01) had significant increases in total traveled distances; however, total traveled distances was not significant at the 60mg/kg between AL-AL and AL-IF subgroups (Figure 6). Figure 7 shows that at both doses, AL-IF subgroups compared to the AL-AL subgroups (20mg/kg, p<0.01 and 60mg/kg, p<0.001) and IF-IF subgroups compared to IF-AL subgroups (p<0.001) had significant increases in rearing behavior. Stereological analysis. In each group, the brains (both sides) of two mice were examined. Numerical density (neuron/mm 3 ) of hippocampal CA1 neurons in the AL-AL subgroups was significantly less than the AL control group (p< 0.05). At both doses, the numerical density of neurons in CA1 region of the hippocampus was significantly less (p<0.05) in the AL-AL subgroup compared to the AL-IF subgroups (Figure 8). Additionally, the higher dose of MDMA (60mg/kg) produced a greater reduction in the numerical density of hippocampal CA1 neurons; however, it was not significant. Figure 9 and Figure 10 show that the AL- IF subgroups had an increased numerical density of neurons in CA1 region of the hippocampus; however, in AL-AL subgroups, there was a decrease two weeks after the administration of MDMA. DISCUSSION In this study, we sought to determine if an IF diet can protect albino mice from MDMA-induced neurotoxicity in the CA1 hippocampal region by examining any behavioral changes. For this purpose, we compared MDMA-induced neurotoxicity and behavioral effects between AL and IF animal groups. Behavioral changes (locomotor activity and anxiety) were recorded by an open field test and elevated plus maze, and neuronal numerical density in the hippocampus was evaluated by stereology after single MDMA administration. MDMA neurotoxicity and its behavioral FIGURE 9. Numerical density of hippocampal CA1 neurons in AL-AL, AL-IF and AL control subgroups. Cresyl violet stain of 30 µ paraffin sections. Scale bar= 100 µm

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