Innovations In Clinical Neuroscience

JAN-FEB 2017

A peer-reviewed, evidence-based journal for clinicians in the field of neuroscience

Issue link: http://innovationscns.epubxp.com/i/796206

Contents of this Issue

Navigation

Page 43 of 63

Innovations in CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE [ V O L U M E 1 4 , N U M B E R 1 – 2 , J A N U A R Y – F E B R U A R Y 2 0 1 7 ] 44 hours prior to experimental t reatment. 5 0,51 Experimental groups. The animals were divided into four groups (for open field and plus maze separately): AL, IF (every other day diet), and two control g roups: AL C and IF C. After five weeks, the food was withdrawn from the mice in AL (n=56) and IF (n=64) groups, and six hours later MDMA was administrated by gavage. 48,50,51 The AL and IF animals were divided into two groups; each group (AL=28, IF=32) was given a single dose of 20 or 60mg/kg MDMA orally. The control mice (both AL C and IF C [n = 12]) were given saline orally. The animals of AL and IF groups were further divided into two groups for behavior assessment: elevated plus maze (AL=14, IF=16) and open field test (AL=14, IF=16). These two behavioral tests were performed on separate days. All animals (AL and IF) were then further divided into four groups each of 20 and 60mg/kg: AL-AL (AL diet throughout, n=7) and AL-IF (IF after MDMA administration, n=7), IF-IF (IF diet throughout, n=8), and IF-AL (AL after MDMA administration, n=8). The second behavioral assessment was performed on ninth day (open field) and 12th day (elevated plus-maze) after MDMA administration. The brains of the animals (n=2 for each group) were then prepared for histological study of the hippocampus with cresyl fast violet stain. The experimental design of the study is illustrated in Figure 1. Elevated plus maze. Anxiety-like behavior was also examined with the elevated plus maze test. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) was made of black Plexiglas and consisted of two opposing open arms (30×5cm, surrounded by a 0.25cm high border) and two enclosed arms (30×5cm, surrounded by 15cm high walls) that joined at a central square area (5×5cm) and raised 50cm above the room floor by means of a stand. Three white 47-watt fluorescent lamps provided the only source of light in the testing room. Thirty minutes after gavage of MDMA, a single mouse was placed onto the central area of the maze facing an open arm and allowed to freely explore the maze. The animal was recorded for five minutes by the video FIGURE 6. Locomotor activity in open field test between AL-AL, AL-IF, IF-IF, IF-AL subgroups 9 days after MDMA administration. Ad libitum (AL), Intermittent feeding (IF), Control (C). (Analysis was done by one-way ANOVA; significance was determined by post hoc Tukey test). ^Significant difference between the AL C and IF C groups.(^^^ p<0.001) *Significant difference between the AL-AL and AL-IF subgroups (20 mg/kg).(*** p<0.001) #Significant difference between the IF-IF and IF-AL subgroups (20 mg/kg).(### p<0.001) +Significant difference between the IF-IF and IF-AL subgroups (60 mg/kg).(++ p<0.01) FIGURE 7. Rearing behavior in the open field (number) of AL-AL, AL-IF, IF-IF and IF-AL subgroups, 12 days after MDMA gavage. Ad libitum (AL), Intermittent feeding (IF), Control (C).(Analysis was done by one-way ANOVA; significance was determined by post hoc Tukey test). ^Significant difference between the AL C and IF C. (^^^ p< 0.001) *Significant difference between the AL-AL and AL-IF (20 mg/kg).(*** p < 0.001) #Significant difference between the IF-IF and IF-AL (20 mg/kg).(### p < 0.001) +Significant difference between the AL-AL and AL-IF (60 mg/kg).(+ p< 0.05)

Articles in this issue

Archives of this issue

view archives of Innovations In Clinical Neuroscience - JAN-FEB 2017