Innovations In Clinical Neuroscience

SEP-OCT 2014

A peer-reviewed, evidence-based journal for clinicians in the field of neuroscience

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[ V O L U M E 1 1 , N U M B E R 9 – 1 0 , S E P T E M B E R – O C T O B E R 2 0 1 4 ] Innovations in CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE 143 reflects not only word recognition and comprehension, but also conceptual understanding. The solution to developing Pediatric versions of the S-STS was to start with the adult version of the scale and collaborate with reading specialists who use these empirically derived systems and related dictionaries to adapt the adult version to each age group. With this in mind, we put together a committee of reading specialists chaired by the second author of this article (D.B.), and in collaboration we developed three pediatric versions of the S-STS. We refer to the linguistic validation process that we used as the Dolch-Fry-Beck, Farr, Strickland (D- F-BFS) system, in deference to those who pioneered this process for the United States educational system and whose lists and texts we used in this linguistic validation. The Committee of Reading Specialists felt that making a unique pediatric version of the S-STS for each age and grade level was unnecessarily cumbersome. Considering both language mastery and cognitive development, they felt that the task could be very efficiently accomplished by making three versions: one for 6- to 8-year-olds, a second for 9- to 12-year-olds, and a third for 13- to 17-year-olds. RESULTS The approach described above resulted in Appendices A, B, and C, which document the alteration in each word or phrase from the adult version of the S-STS to its age appropriate substitute. Table 1 provides a few examples from these appendices to illustrate how this was done. In Table 1, the first column identifies the original wording in the adult version of the S-STS. Column 2 identifies a potentially problematic word or phrase. Column 3 notes that this word TABLE 1. Examples of linguistic validation process from Appendices A, B, and C A GES S-STS QUESTION IN ADULT VERSION POTENTIALLY P ROBLEMATIC WORD/PHRASE WORDS ON D-F-BFS LIST SUBSTITUTE WORD/PHRASE UPDATED QUESTION 6–8 y ears 10. intend to die as a result of a suicidal act? mark either or both: did you in- t end to act: at the time at some time in the future intend mean 10. mean to make yourself dead f rom hurting yourself? to die make yourself dead as a result of from suicidal act hurting yourself mark either or both: did you intend to act: at the time at some time in the future NA (eliminate this phrase) 9–12 years 12. take active steps to prepare for a suicide attempt in which you ex- pected or intended to die (include anything done or purposely not done that put you closer to making a suicide attempt)? take active steps do things 12. do things to prepare to kill yourself? suicide attempt kill yourself expected or intended to die NA (included in 'kill yourself') include anything done or purposely not done that put you closer to making a suicide attempt NA (eliminate this phrase) 13–17 years 7. have any place in mind to attempt suicide (i.e. where)? have any place in mind think about where you would go 7. think about where you would go to kill yourself? attempt suicide kill yourself S-STS: Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale; D-F-BFS: Dolch-Fry-Beck, Farr, Strickland linguistic validation process used to create the pediatric versions of the S-STS; NA: not applicable

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